Groundnut, Arachis hypogea L, also known as peanut, like soya beans is a leguminous plant of the Fabaceae. Groundnut is popular across Nigeria and mostly grown in northern Nigeria. They are commonly used in making oil. The byproduct of this process is used in animal food production.
Facts About Groundnut
Benefits of Groundnuts
Groundnuts are rich in many minerals like potassium, calcium, magnesium etc. It is high in calories and healthy fat.
Uses of Groundnut
Groundnuts can be used to make varieties of end products.
- Groundnut oil for cooking and frying
- Groundnut cake for animal feed production
- Peanut butter or groundnut paste
- Candies and snacks etc
Growing Groundnuts in Northern Nigeria
Groundnuts should be preferably grown in dry season.
Groundnuts thrive well in a rich, well-drained and preferably sandy loam soil. .
Loosen the soil up before planting to enable easy emergence of seed and easy penetration of feconded flower ovaries. Plant 2-3 seeds per hole, 5 cm deep with a spacing of 75cm/25cm. The seeds will germinate between 6-8 days.
Weed the plants effectively after 3-4 weeks of sowing. Top-dress the base of the plant towards flowering time. Since the seed penetrates to develop under the soil, make sure the soil is loosened for easy pegging. Avoid disturbing the soil once pegging is done to enable the pods to develop without interference.
Pest and disease of groundnuts include aphid, thrip, leafminer, groundnut rust, groundnut rosette disease, etc. You can combat them using organic or inorganic pesticides and fungicides.
Groundnuts can be harvested between 90-120 days depending on the variety. Since it is impossible to know the exact harvest period, sampling can be done. Toward the expected maturity date, hand-pull 4 groundnut plants randomly. Open the pods to see the color of the insides. When pods are brown on the insides with plum seed then harvest can be carried out. If the pods are whitish or pale pink on the insides with shrinking seeds, the pods are not matured yet.
Harvest the pods by pulling the plants carefully and completely, leave them to dry off for under the sun in their pods before deshelling.
Processing of Groundnut
Groundnut can be processed into groundnut butter, groundnut oil, groundnut cake etc.
States Groundnuts are Predominantly Found in Northern Nigeria
Groundnuts can be found in Northern states of Kano, Kaduna, Taraba, Bauchi, Borno, and Adamawa and others.
Major Markets of Groundnut in Northern Nigeria
|KADUNA||Kasuwan Dan Magaji, Kasuwan Sabon Gari, Kasuwan Samaru, Kasuwan Giwa.|
|KATSINA||Central Market, Kasuwan Charanchi|
|KANO||Kasuwan Wanbai, Kasuwan Wudil, Kasuwan Danbatta, Kasuwan Yan kaba, Kasuwan Sabon gari.|
|KEBBI||kara market, Central Market Kaoje, Alwala Market, Argungu Central Market, Central Market, Jega Central Market,|
|NASARAWA||Tsohon Kasuwa, Sabon Kasuwa|
|NIGER||Kasuwan Gwari, Sabon Kasuwan|
|KWARA||Mandate Market, New Kulende Market, Owode Market, Ipata Market, Ganmo Market, Alagbado Market, Omu-Aran Market, Yoruba Road Market Ilorin, Baboko Market, Kankatu Market.|
|SOKOTO||Kasuwan Wamako, Kasuwan Sabon Birni, Kasuwan Goronyo, Kasuwan Illela, Kasuwan Gwadabawa, Kasuwan Kebbe, Kasuwan Rabah, Kasuwan Goronyo, Kasuwan Binji.|
|YOBE||Kasuwan Tashar Kuka, Kasuwan Jaji Maje, Kasuwan Garin Alkali, Kasuwan Yusufari, Kasuwan Yunusari.|
|BENUE||Wadata Main Market, Otukpo Main Market, Gboko Markets, Mbatyav District Market, Tarukpe Market, Ortese market, Akpagher market.|
|BORNO||Kasuwan Biu, Kasuwan Meringa, Kasuwan Kwaya, Kasuwan Marama, Kasuwan Shafa.|
|GOMBE||Ashaka Gari, Juggol Barkono, Kodom, Malam Sidi, Kurugu, Mana Washi, Kasuwan Dadin kowa.|
|JIGAWA||Kasuwan Mai gatari, Kasuwan Gujungu, Kasuwan Sara, kasuwan Hadejia, Kasuwan Kafin hausa, Kasuwan Shuwarin.|
|ZAMFARA||Kasuwan, Kasuwan Gusau Central, Kasuwan Gusau Yam.|