Table of Contents
- 1 Facts About Soya Beans
- 2 Growing Soya Beans in Nigeria
- 3 States Soya Beans Are Predominantly Found in Northern Nigeria
Soya bean, Glycine max, is a member of the pea family. Soya beans are a very versatile leguminous plant that is mostly grown in Northern Nigeria for its high fodder quality and its healthy oil, etc. Its cheese is a replacement for meat in most vegan and vegetarian diets. In Northern Nigeria, the cheese is popular as Awara and commonly consumed.
Facts About Soya Beans
Benefits of Soya Beans
Soya beans are a very rich source of protein. They are also rich in potassium, calcium, thiamine, folate, Vitamin C and Vitamin K. Soya bean also have bone regulating capabilities.
Uses of Soya beans
Soya bean is one of the most useful plants. From its growing that helps fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil to its pods and most importantly, its grain. The soya beans itself can be made into many products of economic importance. Some of the most common processed products of the soya beans include:
1. Soybean Oil
A polyunsaturated healthy oil that is cholesterol-free. It is one of the most recommended seed oils for consumption. Its high smoke point makes it very important for cooking
2. Soy Milk
Soy Milk gained popularity alongside nut milk as a replacement for cow milk.
3. Soya Bean Cake
This is the byproduct of oil making. This bean cake is used in feed production. Compared to other animal feed raw materials, it is of higher value. It has a higher energy value than wheat bran and higher protein value than maize.
4. Soy Wax
This wax is gradually taking over the commonly used paraffin wax. This is because of its smokeless flame when used in making candles. It is also commonly used in making crayons. The popularity of this soy wax is linked to the replacement of the use of petroleum and petroleum byproducts.
5. Tofu (Wara)
Wara is one of the most common traditional Hausa foods found in Northern Nigeria. It is made from fermented soya beans fried and eaten with spices.
Growing Soya Beans in Nigeria
Soya beans are best grown during preferably in dry season.
Soya beans is best grown in a rich, well-drained and preferably sandy loam soil.
For a very large scale production, identifying when to plant soya beans is very important because of rain. It is advisable to plant soya beans when rain is fully established. Plant 2-3 seeds 3cm deep in a 75cm/10cm spacing. Doing a pre germination test will attest to the germinative power of the seeds.
Water abundantly the formative stage of the plant, especially during the cessation of rain. Since soya beans are leguminous plants that eventually fix their own nitrogen, giving them phosphorus-rich fertilizer is more important. Fertilizers can either be organic or inorganic.
Pests and diseases of Soya beans include Pod feeder, Bean Flies, Nematodes, Bacterial blight, Soya bean rust, Soya bean Mosaic Virus, etc. Since Soya beans is very susceptible to nematodes, it is advisable not to plant them in rotation with nematode-prone plants. Like the Solanaceae e.g. tomatoes, potatoes, bell peppers, etc. Avoid these pests and diseases using organic or inorganic pesticides etc.
The dried up pods are harvested between 120-150 days depending on the variety. Harvest the pods timely to reduce loss. Let harvested pods dry completely in open air before threshing.
Processing of Soya Beans
Soya milk, one of the derivatives of the processing of soya beans is healthy plant-based milk. Like other plant-based milk, soymilk is lactose-free and non-dairy.
Ingredients for Soya Milk
- 3 cups Soya beans
- 5- 7 cups of Water
- 6 Dates (optional)
- Lemongrass leaves (optional)
Procedure for Making Soya Milk
- Soak precleaned and sorted soya beans for at least 12 hours. Deseed the dates and soak separately.
- Drain the soaked soya beans and remove the skin.
- Grind the soya beans and dates with at least 3 parts of water until well blended.
- Pour the blended mixture through a nut bag or sieve and press firmly until all the milk has been released.
- Heat the soymilk with an addition of 1 cup of water or more depending on your choice of thickness. For at least 15-20 minutes.
- If using, add cleaned lemongrass leaves while boiling the milk to for flavor.
- Skim off the froth from the heating and try not to make it boil over.
- Take off heat and allow to cool down, sieve the milk the second time to remove the lemongrass leaves.
- The milk can be served chilled or used in cooking and baking.
States Soya Beans Are Predominantly Found in Northern Nigeria
Soya beans can be found in the Northern states of Kaduna, Sokoto, Plateau, Zamfara , Kebbi, Nasarawa, Jigawa, Taraba, Borno, Bauchi, and Niger.
Major Markets of Soya Beans in Northern Nigeria
|KADUNA||Kasuwan Dan Magaji, Kasuwan Sabon Gari, Kasuwan Samaru, Kasuwan Giwa.|
|KATSINA||Kasuwan Danja, Kasuwan chunko.|
|KANO||Kasuwan Wanbai, Kasuwan Wudil, Kasuwan Danbatta, Kasuwan Yan kaba, Kasuwan Sabon gari, Kasuwan Dawanau|
|NASARAWA||Tsohon Kasuwa, Sabon Kasuwa|
|NIGER||Kasuwan Gwari, Sabon Kasuwan|
|PLATEAU||Kasuwan Building Material, Kasuwan Farin Gada|
|SOKOTO||Kasuwan Wamako, Kasuwan Sabon Birni, Kasuwan Goronyo, Kasuwan Illela, Kasuwan Gwadabawa, Kasuwan Kebbe, Kasuwan Rabah, Kasuwan Goronyo, Kasuwan Binji.|
|YOBE||Kasuwan Tashar Kuka, Kasuwan Jaji Maje, Kasuwan Garin Alkali, Kasuwan Yusufari, Kasuwan Yunusari.|
|ADAMAWA||Kasuwan Uba main, Kasuwan Garkida, Kasuwan Gombi , Kasuwan Mubi grains, Kasuwan Hong, Kasuwan Michika, Kasuwan Gulak.|
|BORNO||Kasuwan Biu, Kasuwan Meringa, Kasuwan Kwaya, Kasuwan Marama, Kasuwan Shafa.|
|GOMBE||Da Sauransu, Ashaka Gari, Juggol Barkono, Kodom, Malam Sidi, Kurugu, Mana Washi, Kasuwan Dadin kowa.|
|JIGAWA||Kasuwan Mai gatari, Kasuwan Gujungu, Kasuwan Sara, kasuwan Hadejia, Kasuwan Kafin hausa, Kasuwan Shuwarin.|
|ZAMFARA||Kasuwan Gusau, Gusau Central|